1. Address viral infection & Support immunity
- NAC/glutathione: deficiency is implicated as the central driver of illness and death from SARS-CoV-2 (1). 600-900mg twice daily
- Bromelain with Acetylcysteine [NAC] breaks down the spike protein (2) & bromelain also inhibits SARS-CoV-2 binding to ACE2 receptors (3). Take NAC 800mg along with Bromelain 1g, twice daily
- Zinc Lozenges and Zinc Picolinate: Zinc is anti-viral and defends against respiratory viral infections and regulates the immune response in the respiratory tract (4). Zinc inhibits coronavirus replication. Zinc lozenges used at the first signs of COVID-19, administered 5 times a day for up to 5 days and longer if needed if symptoms persist. Zinc Picolinate to provide 50mg elemental zinc daily, this can be used in combination with antimalarial (5): Ivermectin and hydroxychloroquine if available, otherwise consider Artemisia Annua which has shown potent effects against SARS-CoV-2 in cell cultures (6).
- Vitamin C: 1000 mg (or more) 3 times daily (repeated doses important for maximal effect). Vitamin C is rapidly depleted in infections, reduces oxidative stress throughout the body, helps white blood cells recover, and protects red blood cells and blood vessels (7;8). Intravenous vitamin C (IVC) led to recovery in hospitalised moderate, severe, and critical COVID-19 cases (9)
- Vitamin D: 5,000 IU/day. Important for healthy immune response, 91% of 33 treatment studies report positive treatment effects against SARS-CoV-2 (10)
- Magnesium: 400 mg/d (in malate, citrate, chelate, or chloride form)
- Selenium: 100 mcg/d plays a critical role in effective immune response (11). Selenium containing red blood cell membrane proteins are targets of (and are depleted by) the SARS-CoV-2 virus. This destroys red blood cells causing hypoxia (inadequate oxygenation of cells) as well as immune suppression, enabling the virus to flourish (7)
- Niacin (NAD) deficiency can be induced by the SARS-CoV-2 virus and is very important in COVID-19 infection especially when lung damage is present (7)
- Natto completely inhibits SARS-CoV-2 in cell cultures by breaking down the binding areas of the viral proteins (12). Natto is a traditional Japanese fermented soybean food very rich in the probiotic bacteria Bacillus subtilis. One study found people given 2 billion CFU of Bacillus subtilis were 55% less likely to suffer from a respiratory infection over the four-month study period (13). Natto is loaded in nutrients and reduces blood clotting due to an enzyme called nattokinase which is a potent anti-clotting agent (14).
- Black Seed Oil Nigella Sativa is an ancient herb with numerous benefits – anti- inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral, protective of endothelial tissue (lining blood vessels) and lungs and diverse bodily systems (15;30). can bind to the COVID- 19 virus spike protein and stop the virus from infecting the lungs and causing vascular damage. It may also block the ‘cytokine’ storm (16;17).
- Antiviral Herbs:
The following have been extensively studied for their anti-viral effects and will also protect from secondary bacterial infections:
- Reishi Mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum)
- Berberine-containing herbs like Coptis & Golden Seal
- Scutellariae baicalensis
- Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra)
- Elderberry (Sambucus Nigra)
2. Immune Regulation
- The virus suppresses innate and adaptive immune responses early in the illness and causes an excessive immune response as the illness progresses (17). Cellular damage, illness and death are driven by the cytokine storm that follows the infection (i.e., caused by the body’s own excessive immune response). Patients sick with COVID-19 have high leukocytes with relatively lower neutrophil counts and elevated blood levels of cytokines (i.e., TNF-a, IFN-g, IL-1b, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10) and C- reactive protein (5). So, in early stages of infection more emphasis might be placed on immune support, and later, more emphasis on anti-inflammatory actions (17). The following agents regulate cytokine expression to inhibit the cytokine storm, reduce inflammation and balance the immune response:
- Most nutrients mentioned in point 1 above also have important roles in regulating inflammation. For example, NAC is antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, it down- regulates inflammation by mopping up ROS (free radicals), and protects lungs (17)
- Turmeric – as liposomal curcumin 500-1,000 mg, twice daily. Blocks the inflammatory cytokine cascade and inhibits SARS-CoV-2 (17)
- Quercetin – facilitates the transport of zinc (an anti-viral) into cells & blocks an enzyme necessary for coronavirus replication (17). Antiviral- inhibits RNA viruses like coronavirus. Also, an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory (18). Low bioavailability requires a liposomal form, dose: 500mg twice daily.
- Fish oils – are anti-inflammatory and inhibit blood clotting (SARS-CoV-2 causes blood clotting). Take 1000-2000mg daily.
- Specialised pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs) are made by the body from DHA and EPA (in fish oils). They differ from fish oils in that they are given in the direct, derived form. They are powerful regulators of inflammation by signalling cells to resolve inflammation (17;19). Take 1 capsule twice daily (divided doses best).
- Green tea – the polyphenol in green tea (containing epicatechin-gallate) inhibits SARS-CoV-2 (17). Drink 4-cups daily.
- Dandelion water extract prevented SARS-CoV-2 binding to ACE2 receptors and stopped pro-inflammatory interleukin-6 secretion in lab tests (20). Drink 1-3 cups of dandelion root ‘coffee’ daily.
- Anti-inflammatory & immune support drink: water/ ginger/ turmeric/ lemon/ chilli with raw honey. Drink daily.
- Avoid NSAIDs such as Ibuprofen: it decreases the immune system’s ability to fight COVID-19 (21) and upregulates the ACE2 receptors to let more virus in to the cell (22).
- Avoid paracetamol (Panadol) as it aggravates the inflammatory process & may worsen the cytokine storm because it depletes NAC (23).
3. Antiplatelet & Antithrombotic actions
The spike proteins accumulate in the blood vessel linings and cause clotting. To prevent thrombosis in small and large blood vessels
Herbs & supplements:
- Dan Shen
- Gingko biloba
- Nattokinase, the enzyme from Natto as above, has a potent anti-clotting effect by dissolving fibrin, a protein central to clot formation (14;24). Take 1x 2000 FU (fibrinolytic units) (equivalent to 1x100mg) capsule daily.
4. Protection of cardiovascular system and neurological system (& all bodily systems):
- Maritime Pine Bark: potent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant effects, anti-viral effects and offers protection of all cells, including cardiovascular system and neurological system. Take as a tincture 5ml three times daily or as the standardised extract called Pycnogenol 1x100mg capsule twice daily (25).
- Japanese Knotweed (Polygonum): high resveratrol content, antiviral, antioxidant, neuroprotective, cardioprotective and anti-thrombotic actions
5. Medical treatment for SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19)
Note that a robust medical treatment protocol exists and has had great success internationally. For example, Ivermectin (an older, antiparasitic drug) is a very effective, safe, and inexpensive treatment with over 100 studies demonstrating its effectiveness in COVID-19 treatment and prevention (26-29). The most widely used medical protocol includes the use of Ivermectin, corticosteroids, zinc, antibiotics, and antithrombotic agents, as well as patient oxygenation (5). Reference number five below outlines the protocol. However, despite the evidence, it is very difficult to access this protocol in Australia and other countries, as medical authorities prevent doctors prescribing Ivermectin for COVID-19.
- Polonikov, A. 2020. Endogenous Deficiency of Glutathione as the Most Likely Cause of Serious Manifestations and Death in COVID-19 Patients. ACS Infectious Diseases. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32463221
- Akhter, J., Quéromès, G., Pillai, K., Kepenekian, V., Badar, S., Mekkawy, A. H., Frobert, E., Valle, S. J., & Morris, D. L. 2021. The Combination of Bromelain and Acetylcysteine (BromAc) Synergistically Inactivates SARS-CoV2. Viruses, 13(3), 425. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13030425
- Mishra, N. K., Guda, C., Broadhurst, M. J., Reid, S., Bayles, K. W., Borgstahl, G., & Radhakrishnan, P. 2020. Bromelain Inhibits SARS-CoV-2 Infection in VeroE6 Cells. bioRxiv: The preprint server for biology. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.09.16.297366
- Sadeghsoltani, F., Mohammadzadeh, I., Safari, M. M., Hassanpour, P., Izadpanah, M., Qujeq, D., Moein, S., & Vaghari-Tabari, M. (2021). Zinc and Respiratory Viral Infections: Important Trace Element in Anti-viral Response and Immune Regulation. Biological trace element research, 1–16. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-021-02859-z
- McCullough PA, Kelly RJ, Ruocco G, et al. 2021. Pathophysiological basis and rationale for early outpatient treatment of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection. The American Journal of Medicine, Vol 134, No 1, 16-22 DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2020.07.003
- Zhou, Y., Gilmore, K., Ramirez, S. et al. In vitro efficacy of artemisinin-based treatments against SARS-CoV-2. Sci Rep 11, 14571 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-93361-y
- Passwater, M. 2021. Vitamin C Levels in Critically Ill Covid-19 Patients. Orthomolecular Medicine News Service, July 18. http://www.orthomolecular.org/resources/omns/v17n17.shtml
- Holford, P., 2020. Vitamin C for the Prevention and Treatment of Coronavirus. Orthomolecular Medicine News Service, July 7. http://orthomolecular.org/resources/omns/v16n36.shtml
- Chen, R. 2020. Coronavirus: Successful High-Dose Vitamin C Treatment of Patients. Orthomolecular Medicine News Service https://blogs.mediapart.fr/ninhursag/blog/200320/coronavirus-successful-high-dose-vitamin-c- treatment-patients
- COVID-19 early treatment: real-time analysis of 840 studies https://vdmeta.com/
- Doctors for Covid Ethics. 2021. https://doctors4covidethics.org/supporting-dr-white/
- Mami O., Wen R., Akatsuki S., Tamaki O., Tomoko Y., Junko Y., Yoko S., Koji N., Hitoshi W., Yutaka N., Tetsuya M. 2021. Natto extract, a Japanese fermented soybean food, directly inhibits viral infections including SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Volume 570, pp. 21-25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.07.034
- Lefevre,M.,Racedo,S.M.,Ripert,G.,Housez,B.,Cazaubiel,M.,Maudet,C.,Jüsten,P.,Marteau, P., & Urdaci, M. C. 2015. Probiotic strain Bacillus subtilis CU1 stimulates immune system of elderly during common infectious disease period: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled
study. Immunity & ageing: I & A, 12, 24. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12979-015-0051-y
- Weng,Y.,Yao,J.,Sparks,S.,&Wang,K.Y.2017.Nattokinase:AnOralAntithromboticAgentfor the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 18(3), 523. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18030523
- Gholamnezhad, Z., Havakhah, S., & Boskabady, M. H. (2016). Preclinical and clinical effects of Nigella sativa and its constituent, thymoquinone: A review. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 190, 372–386. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2016.06.061
- Maiti, S., Banerjee, A., & Kanwar, M. (2021). In silico Nigellidine (N. sativa) bind to viral spike/active-sites of ACE1/2, AT1/2 to prevent COVID-19 induced vaso-tumult/vascular- damage/comorbidity. Vascular pharmacology, 138, 106856. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vph.2021.106856
- Yanuck,S.F.,Pizzorno,J.,Messier,H.,&Fitzgerald,K.N.2020.EvidenceSupportingaPhased Immuno-physiological Approach to COVID-19 From Prevention Through Recovery. Integrative Medicine (Encinitas, Calif.), 19(Suppl 1), 8–35. PMID: 32425712
- The Institute for Functional Medicine. 2020. The Functional Medicine Approach to COVID-19: Virus- Specific Nutraceutical and Botanical Agents https://www.ifm.org/news-insights/the-functional- medicine-approach-to-covid-19-virus-specific-nutraceutical-and-botanical-agents/
- Basil, M., Levy, B. Specialized pro-resolving mediators: endogenous regulators of infection and inflammation. Nat Rev Immunol 16, 51–67 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1038/nri.2015.4
- Hoai, T., Nguyen P., Khoi L., Michael G., Corinna D., Evelyn L. 2021. Common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) efficiently blocks the interaction between ACE2 cell surface receptor and SARS-CoV-2 spike protein D614, mutants D614G, N501Y, K417N and E484K in vitro bioRxiv 2021.03.19.435959; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.03.19.435959
- Day,M.2020.Covid-19:ibuprofenshouldnotbeusedformanagingsymptoms,saydoctorsand scientists. BMJ;368:m1086 https://www.bmj.com/content/bmj/368/bmj.m1086.full.pdf
- Hoevenaar, Martijn & Goossens, Dolf. (2020). Fever & COVID-19-Complicaties. http://dx.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.22781.10726/1
- Sestili,P.,&Fimognari,C.(2020).Paracetamol-InducedGlutathioneConsumption:Istherealink with severe COVID-19 Illness? Frontiers in pharmacology, 11, 579944. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.579944
- Chen,H.etal.2018.Nattokinase:APromisingAlternativeinPreventionandTreatmentof Cardiovascular Disease. Biomarker Insights Volume 13: 1–8.
- Pycnogenol scientific studies summary. https://www.pycnogenol.com/fileadmin/pdf/PYBEN181.pdf
- Kory,P.,Meduri,G.U.,Varon,J.,Iglesias,J.,Marik,P.2021.ReviewoftheEmergingEvidence Demonstrating the Efficacy of Ivermectin in the Prophylaxis and Treatment of COVID-19, American Journal of Therapeutics: Volume 28, Issue 3, p e299-e318. doi: 10.1097/MJT.0000000000001377
- PeterMcCullough,MDtestifiestoTexasSenateHealthandHumanServicesCommittee. Testimony given March 10, 2021. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QAHi3lX3oGM
- Bryant,A.,Lawrie,T.A.,Dowswell,T.,Fordham,E.J.,Mitchell,S.,Hill,S.R.,&Tham,T.C.2021. Ivermectin for Prevention and Treatment of COVID-19 Infection: A Systematic Review, Meta- analysis, and Trial Sequential Analysis to Inform Clinical Guidelines. American Journal of Therapeutics, 28(4), e434–e460. https://doi.org/10.1097/MJT.0000000000001402
- Database of all Ivermectin COVID-19 studies. August 2021. https://c19ivermectin.com/
- The role of thymoquinone, a major constituent of Nigella sativa, in the treatment of inflammatory and infectious disease Kaneez Fatima Shad, Wissam Soubra, Dennis John Cordato First published: 23 July 2021 https://doi.org/10.1111/1440-1681.13553 NLM